Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir (Verbenaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon for the treatment of many diseases including intestinal helminthiasis. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo antischistosomal activity of its leaves aqueous extract on a Schistosoma mansoni mice model and to determine the most effective dose of this extract. Mice showing a patent infection of S. mansoni were daily treated with C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract at the doses of 40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. Seven days after administration of the extract, schistosomicidal activity was evaluated on the liver and spleen weights, faecal eggs releasing, liver egg count and worm burden. Treatment using C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract resulted in an important reduction in faecal egg output by 75.49% and 85.14% for 80 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg of the extract respectively. These reduction rates did not differ significantly from the 100% obtained in the group of infected mice treated with 100 mg/kg of praziquantel. C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract was lethal to S. mansoni worm. A 100% reduction rate was recorded in the group of infected mice treated with 160 mg/kg of the extract, as well as in praziquantel-treated mice. An amelioration of the hepatosplenomegaly was noticed in both the extract-treated mice and the praziquantel-treated mice. From these results, we can conclude that C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract demonstrated schistosomicidal properties in S. mansoni model at doses of at least 80 mg/kg body weight.
Clerodendrum umbellatum; Schistosoma mansoni; faecal egg output; mice; worm burden